Aqua Notes - The Race Club

February 17-20, 2017 Swim Technique Camp in Islamorada, FL

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The Race Club swim technique camp is unlike anything out there! We try to cater to each individual swimmer. Just ask around and read our testimonials to hear what people say about their experience with us. 

We will have 2 groups during this camp; Swimmers and Triathletes. 

Swimmers will focus on all 4 strokes, starts and turns and the 5 disciplines of swimming. Triathletes will focus on everything freestyle technique to become a faster triathlete swimmer. We encourage everyone to attend all 8 camp sessions and 4 enhanced sessions over the 4 days.

Friday, February 17th 8am-10am and 3pm-5pm camp sessions
Friday, February 17th 10am-11am enhanced session
Saturday, February 18th 8am-10am and 3pm-5pm camp sessions
Saturday, February 18th 10am-11am enhanced session
Sunday, February 19th 8am-10am and 3pm-5pm camp sessions
Sunday, February 19th 10am-11am enhanced session
Monday, February 20th 8am-10am and 3pm-5pm camp sessions
Monday, February 20th 10am-11am enhanced session

Camp sessions are $150 and enhanced sessions are $100. If you sign up for all 8 camp sessions and 4 enhanced sessions on or before January 16th, you get a $300 discount. The price would be $1300, instead of $1600. The pool is located at Founders Park Pool, 87000 Overseas Hwy, Islamorada, FL. Please fill out the registration form and submit online here.

Freestyle Kicking Sets Part One


Improving your freestyle kicking technique will virtually guarantee that you will swim freestyle faster and there is no better way to accomplish this than to incorporate creative freestyle kicking sets into your swim training program. The speed of the freestyle kick is the baseline speed for your freestyle. The higher the baseline speed (kick speed), the faster you will swim, after adding your pulling motion and body rotation.
Some swimmers and coaches consider that the up kick of the freestyle kick is a recovery phase. This can be due to a lack of creative freestyle kicking sets. At The Race Club, we consider that both the up kick and the down kick are very important and both kicks need to be worked hard. Neither should be thought of as a recovery. In this Race Club Swimisode, World Class freestyler, Zach Hayden, demonstrates how to kick with the correct body position, using snorkel and alignment board, and a tough exercise we use to develop a faster freestyle kick, working the legs in both directions.
The technique of finding the best articulation (bend) of the ankle, knee and hip are also extremely important in developing propulsion, without causing too much frontal drag. Fast freestyle kicking is an art form, requiring strength and flexibility. We hope that this #swimisodes will help you improve your freestyle kicking technique and give you some ideas for freestyle kicking sets.

Devin Murphy Expert Race Club Coach in Islamorada, FL

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The Race Club, a provider of advanced swimming technique training, camps, analysis and on-line coaching for athletes of all ages and ability, has excelled greatly with Expert Coach, Devin Murphy.  Devin, who began with The Race Club June 1st, came from Pipeline Swimming in Tampa, Florida where he coached several Junior National and Junior Olympic qualifiers as well as High School State Champions and the Bosnian National Record Holder in the 50 and 100 Freestyle.  Prior to his times as a club coach, Devin was the Head Coach of Malone University and the Assistant Coach for Saint Leo University where he helped coach several NCAA All – Americans.  Devin enjoys expanding his knowledge through working with the coaches and clients of The Race Club. He will be leading the Thanksgiving Islamorada camp along with Tripp Montgomery and Richard Hall.  Devin Murphy will coach the Holiday camp, December 17th – January 2nd in Islamorada, along with Richard Hall. 
The Race Club was responsible for training 53 Olympic swimmers that won 23 Olympic medals over 4 successive Olympic Games from 1996 to 2008.  Since then, they have shared their knowledge and expertise by teaching swimming technique and training to swimmers and triathletes of all ages and abilities from around the world attending their camps or private instruction.  The Race Club offers the most advanced technology available for improving swimming skills.
“From the word go, Devin has embodied The Race Club scientific principles of swimming technique and the values of what we teach in swimming and life.” says Gary Hall Sr., co-founder and Director of The Race Club.  “Our Race Club family of clients has embraced him as their own.  They are the ones that validate to us how great of a technique coach Devin is.”
Devin Murphy will be filmed as Race Club coach in our upcoming film production in January. Stay tuned for new videos to be released later in 2017 starring coach Devin Murphy.
Devin Murphy is based in The Race Club’s Islamorada, Florida location, although he travels to conduct clinics.  Race Club coaches also teach our methodologies to clients through private instruction and individual online consultation via Skype or FaceTime.  The Race Club utilizes Founders Park Pool and Jacobs Aquatics Center to conduct private sessions and our Florida Swim Camps.
For more information or to register to attend private sessions or camps in Islamorada or Coronado, contact us: P: 310-936-1888


Swim Training for the 50 Freestyle


High Octane Freestyle Part III: Training 

The 50-meter sprint primarily involves two of the three energy systems we have available to use. Stored energy and anaerobic energy production are the two principal ways in which we delivery ATP to our muscles for this short, all-out burst of speed. However, at the very end of the 50-meter race, when most are either won or lost, the aerobic energy system begins to kick in. Therefore, aerobic swim training also plays a role in the 50-meter races.

All three energy systems have the capacity to change or adapt to the environment when they are stressed in that environment over time. That simply means to improve the anaerobic systems, one must train with a method that stresses those systems. The same goes for the aerobic system.

The stored energy supply (ATP and creatine phosphate) with maximal exertion will last about 8-10 seconds. I am not certain how much more available storage of this source of energy can be developed by stressing that system (alactic training), or by ingesting creatine, which is controversial, but it can change. Alactic swim training is done by repeated burst maximal efforts of 8-10 seconds so as not to require anaerobic production of ATP, followed by enough recovery time to restore the stored energy supply. That time is typically around 30 seconds or so.

Developing the other anaerobic energy system, the production of ATP anaerobically (anaerobic glycolysis), which predominates the energy supply between 10 seconds up to around a minute of maximal effort, comes from what is called lactate training. This type of training includes repeated maximal effort sets of longer than 10 seconds up to one minute or so with enough recovery time so as not to overwork the aerobic system. That rest period is typically 1 to 3 minutes or more, depending on the duration of the maximal effort. This part of the anaerobic system is not improved by increasing the production rate of ATP, which is the same in trained or untrained muscles, but rather by improving the ability to buffer lactate. The release of a free hydrogen ion as a byproduct of anaerobic glycolysis results in the lowering of the pH of the body. Lactate training improves the ability of the muscle cell to remove the free hydrogen ion. The human body has a very low tolerance for changes in pH (acidification or alkalization) and if the body becomes too acidic, muscle contraction begins to diminish significantly. Athletes know this feeling all too well as the proverbial piano on the back.

The quickest and easiest way for the human to increase the pH and restore it to more neutrality is by increasing the respiratory rate, blowing off more carbon dioxide, or so-called oxygen debt. That is why swimmers do not feel the need to breathe much at the beginning of the race, but as the race progresses and the pH lowers, the swimmer cannot get enough oxygen (or blow off enough CO2).

Since the aerobic energy system (aerobic respiration or oxidative phosphorylation) comes into play at the end of the 50 meters, sprinters must also develop this system to some degree. Too much of the training required to develop this system is detrimental to the sprinter, since it often results in a degradation of good sprint technique and can shift the composition of the muscles toward an increase in slow twitch fibers used in the endurance events. Typically, sprinters will devote the earliest part of the season to developing a stronger aerobic system and the middle and end of the season toward building the anaerobic systems.

While all three of these energy systems can be improved, depending on the type of training we do, the fact is that the muscle mass and composition have a lot to do with the success or lack of success of a sprinter. The predominance of fast twitch fibers results in the ability to generate much more power than with slow twitch fibers. These types of fibers do not recover as quickly as the slow twitch variety, so sprinters cannot sustain a high speed for very long. All swimmers also have a certain number of muscle fibers that sit on the fence. They can be converted to faster twitch, resulting in more power, or slower twitch, resulting in a faster recovery rate, depending on which way the swimmer trains. Anaerobic training shifts them toward the fast side, while aerobic training shifts them toward the slow side.

Swimming is unique in that it presents a paradoxical relationship between muscle mass and speed. Because of the extraordinarily sensitive relationship between a swimmer’s morphology (build) and frontal drag, bigger does not always mean faster. In fact, in races beyond 50 meters, bigger, even if it also means stronger, often results in slower performances. Strength training in swimming remains one of the most challenging and controversial subjects because of this unique paradox.

Finally, because of the significant contribution of the kick to a swimmer’s speed, there are exceptional sprinters that do not necessarily have the expected fast twitch muscle composition, yet manage to go very fast. My son, Gary Jr, was a good example of a swimmer that did not have a great vertical leap, but still managed to win a couple of Olympic gold medals in the 50 meter freestyle. His kicking speed was incredibly fast.

In conclusion, if it is your goal to become a better sprinter, no matter what anatomical or physiological cards you were dealt, first, learn to use a sprinter’s high-octane technique. Second, train to develop the anaerobic systems, but do not completely neglect the aerobic system. You need all three. Third, build swim-specific strength outside of the pool, but don’t get too bulky. Fourth, work on developing a faster kick, where you likely have the most to gain.

If you need help in any of these areas, come visit us at The Race Club. We’d love to help you train smarter and swim faster.

Yours in swimming,

Gary Sr.

Read High Octane Freestyle Part I of III

Read High Octane Freestyle Part II of III

50 Freestyle Swim Technique


High Octane Freestyle Part II of III

Virtually all of elite sprinters for the 50 Freestyle use shoulder-driven freestyle technique. Shoulder-driven freestyle, as opposed to hip-driven or hybrid freestyle, requires that the swimmer gets the hand into the propulsion phase as soon as possible after entering the water. In other words, there is no delay of the hand out in front before it begins pushing backward. The result is a higher RPM or stroke rate.

In the sprinters’ world, RPM matters. When a swimmer goes from hip-driven to shoulder-driven, he basically changes the technique of using his hand (and arm) from an airplane wing and paddle to using it as a propeller. With propellers, higher RPM generally means more speed. Stroke rates of elite sprinters in the 50 meter event range from around 120 strokes per minute (cycle time of 1 second) to around 150 strokes per minute (cycle time of .8 seconds). RPM is not the only thing that matters, however.

The propulsion of a swimmer comes from both the hands and the feet. While all elite sprinters have very fast kicks, the total contribution of a sprinter’s overall speed from the kick and the pull remains controversial. Elite sprinters can pull 50 freestyle faster than they can kick it on the surface (by a few seconds), but from that one cannot necessarily conclude that the pull contributes more to the overall speed than the kick. While there is clearly more propulsion coming from the arm pull, there is also more frontal drag from this motion than with the kicking motion. Also, the measured pulling speed has the benefit of the coupling motions, while the kicking speed (with a board) does not.

Regardless, since the contributions of pull and kick to body speed are likely to be pretty close to equal in the sprints, the point is that the kick had better be fast. A few years ago, I trained a Race Club member that was trying to reach a goal time of 23.0 for the 50-meter freestyle. His best time had been 24.5. In six months, he improved his kick time from 50 seconds for 50 meters (1 m/sec) to 38 seconds (1.32 m/sec). His sprint time improved to 23.2 seconds…all due to a faster kick.

At The Race Club we have a saying that when it comes to the pulling motion, ‘frontal drag trumps power’. However, that is not so in the 50 freestyle sprint. The deeper elbow pulling motion puts the arm in a biomechanically stronger position for propulsion, compared to the high elbow pull. It also causes more frontal drag from the forward motion of the upper arm. In any event longer than 50 meters, the additional frontal drag caused by the deeper elbow will wear the swimmer down. In the sprint for a short duration, it is more manageable. The pulling motion of the elite sprinters ranges from nearly a straight arm down (Anthony Ervin) to an elbow that is about half way from the surface to the straight down pull (Manaudou, Adrian). Either is a compromise in position from the lower drag, high elbow pulling motion of the elite distance swimmers.

The fourth common feature of all elite sprinters is the effective use of coupling motions; body rotation and arm recovery. Perhaps the least understood and appreciated of all four qualities, these coupling motions are an important way to augment propulsion and swim faster. Both motions are circular. The amount of kinetic energy that is generated from each of these motions is determined by the mass (of upper body or arm), the square of the radius (width of the body and length of the arm) and the square of the angular velocity of each (the rotating body or recovering arm speed). The more kinetic energy in those motions that is coupled with the kick or pull, the greater the propulsion that is created.

Since there is more mass in the upper body than the arm, this motion is likely the more important of the two motions. We cannot change our upper body mass nor our body’s radius, but we can change the rotational speed of our body. By doing so, we can have a huge impact on our propulsion due to the exponential relationship of angular velocity.

With the arm recovery motion, we can change the radius of the arm by bending or straightening the elbow. We can also change the angular velocity by recovering the arm at a higher speed. Both have an exponential relationship with the amount of kinetic energy produced in that motion. In other words, if I double the radius of my arm by going from completely bent to straight, I quadruple the kinetic energy in the motion. If I double the angular velocity of the recovering arm, I quadruple the kinetic energy in that motion. If I do both, I increase the kinetic energy from a slow, bent-arm recovery to a fast, straight-arm recovery by 16 times!

Through the power of coupling motions, we see nearly all of the elite sprinters increase speed by rotating the shoulders quickly from one side to the other and by recovering their arms quickly with them either straight or nearly straight. Those two motions require a lot of work, but significantly increase the propulsion of both the pull and kick.

Sprinting fast requires that you have certain anatomical and physiological tools, as well as good technique. In the next and final article, we will describe ways in which your training can help you develop better tools for sprinting.

Yours in swimming,

Gary Sr.

Read High Octane Freestyle Part I of III

Read High Octane Freestyle Part III of III

Donna Hodgert – College Swim Coach

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HI Amy,
Thanks for checking in. Things are going real well. I am feeling great with my freestyle and swimming about 3 sec. per 100 faster on my repeats.  Fly, I am still working on breathing every stroke and getting that to feel effortless like the free. But overall, feeling great in the water and can’t wait to race this winter at a few meets.
My team is doing well too. I started them off with a lot of work with snorkels and alignment boards because the majority of them are fairly inexperienced. We have great streamlines! I would say, the best in the conference.  There are two swimmers that I struggle with getting their heads down, I can’t get them to put their heads lower in the water to save my life and I have tried everything! Even with video feedback they think their heads are low, but I am not giving up! Overall the team is looking most solid in breast and I love the “hyper streamline”, I am seeing so much progress. As a coach, it is nice to have a formula that works and the Race Club techniques are my “go to” formulas. Last year I jumped around trying so many different things but I am getting much more out the team by sticking to technique theories of drag reduction and coupling motions.
Hope all is well in FL. I miss the outdoor pool!


Donna Hodgert

Head Swim Coach
Aquatics Director
Sweet Briar College

High Octane Freestyle Part I of III


High Octane Freestyle

While one could argue that there is no true sprint in the sport of swimming, the 50-meter events come the closest. For the 20 seconds or so duration of this event, a swimmer relies mostly on his stored energy systems (available Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and Creatine Phosphate) and his anaerobic energy system. The aerobic system may come into play, but only in the final few seconds of the event, providing perhaps 5% of the total energy requirements. In freestyle, where a swimmer has the option of breathing or not breathing, that becomes important, as most of the gains or losses tend to occur in the last 5 meters to the wall.

When doing more continuous maximal exertion exercise (over 30 seconds), a swimmer uses all three energy systems to provide enough ATP for the muscles to sustain contractions. In any swimming event over 50 meters, swimmers rely heavily on developing a robust aerobic energy system. The longer the maximum effort event, the more dependent the swimmer becomes on the aerobic energy system to produce ATP. For the 50 meter events, swimmers must rely more on power, technique, an efficient anaerobic energy system and in the final few meters, for those that care to take a breath, an efficient aerobic system.

Because of the unique requirements of the 50-meter sprint, the training for this event needs to be highly focused on developing the anaerobic systems (alactic and lactate training). The technique for sprints must also be focused more on developing more propulsion (power) compared to the longer events, where frontal drag and building a better aerobic system are more of a concern.

Not everyone is genetically gifted to become a great sprinter. Having a higher percentage of fast twitch fibers and a fast kick are two of the most important components of a fast sprinter. Yet there is no mold for a sprinter, either. There may be advantages to height, for example, but two of the fastest male swimmers in the world today, Caleb Dressel and Vlad Morozov, are just 6 feet tall, considerably shorter than most of the other great sprinters.

Whether gifted for sprinting or not, everyone can get better at sprinting by training appropriately and by using the right techniques. The freestyle technique for the 50-meter sprint should be significantly different than the technique for the 100 meters and up. I call this sprint technique High Octane Freestyle because it demands more energy, yet produces more power. Technique is not only event specific, but also swimmer specific. Each swimmer must learn to best play the hand that he or she has been dealt. In other words, the sprint technique should be adapted to the anatomical and physiological conditions of the swimmer.

There are four characteristics of the technique that all great sprint freestylers seem to have in common. First, they are all shoulder driven. That means that the stroke rate is fast and the majority of the body rotation is coming from the shoulder rather than the hip. Second, their kicking speed is fast. The kick speed is more important in the sprint than in any other event. Third, they opt for a more powerful pulling motion than distance swimmers. That means that the pulling motion is deeper than with the distance swimmers. Fourth, they use the two coupling motions of freestyle, body rotation and arm recovery, extremely well.

In the next article, we will discuss all four of these common techniques of great sprinters in more detail, with suggestions on how you can improve in all of them. In the final article, we will discuss the types of training in and out of the pool that will help you improve your sprinting.

Yours in swimming,

Gary Sr.

Read High Octane Freestyle Part II of III

Read High Octane Freestyle Part III of III

San Diego Swim Camp January 13-16, 2017

Come join us for our January San Diego Swim Camp in Coronado, CA! Below are the details of each session. You can sign up for as many sessions as you’d like, but you can see why we encourage you to sign up for all 8 sessions and the 4 enhanced sessions. Lots of Great material to cover! These sessions are for any swimmer that wants to swim faster. We have had swimmers and triathletes from age 7- 86 ranging in abilities from beginner wanting to learn a flip turn or a stroke, to Olympians. Sign up and we hope you’ll have a great time!
Each session involves out of water time and in water time. Don’t worry! We coach swimmers of all ages & abilities to help them swim faster.
January 13th 7am-9am – Science of Swimming – Reducing Frontal Drag – Freestyle technique
January 13th 1pm-3pm – Race Club mobility routine – Increasing Propulsion – Freestyle technique
January 14th 8am-10am – Nutrition – Conforming to the Law of Inertia – Freestyle
January 14th 3pm-5pm – Yoga – Progression to a Fast Backstroke
January 15th 8am-10am – Strength training – Key Points to Improve Breaststroke
January 15th 3pm-5pm – Starts – Race Club Circuit Swim Strength Training
January 16th 7am-9am – Mental training – Developing an Easier and Faster Butterfly
January 16th 1pm-3pm – Race Practice and Strategy
January 13th 9am-10am Breathing Technique and Breathing Patterns
January 14th 10am-11am Dolphin Kick Technique and Drills
January 15th 10am-11am Back to Breast Transition Turn
January 16th 9am-10am Starts and Turns
-All 8 camp sessions plus 4 enhanced sessions = $1300 ($300 savings if you register by December 12th, 2016)
-Each camp session is $150
-Each enhanced session is $100
Location: Coronado High School Brian Bent Memorial Aquatic Center, 818 Sixth Street, Coronado, CA 92118. Email for questions. Or Register Here for our San Diego Swim Camp. *Times and topics of sessions subject to change but most likely won’t ;)

Avoid the ‘Modern Toilet Seat’ Syndrome in Swimming Freestyle & Backstroke


Somewhere along the line of learning freestyle and backstroke technique, many swimmers have been told to enter their hands delicately in the water. As the arm recovers over the top of the water, just before entering the water, the swimmer will slow the velocity of the hand and arm down to avoid crashing them into the water. I call this the ‘modern toilet seat’ syndrome, because in swimming freestyle and backstroke, the hand slows down just like a modern toilet seat with a spring on it to keep it from falling down hard. The rationale of this technique is to avoid getting air bubbles surrounding the hand during the underwater pull, which results in a loss of propulsion.

While it is true that reducing the number of bubbles on the hand will increase propulsion, laying the hand down softly in the water or sliding the hand forward in the water in front of the head are bad ideas. First, I am not convinced that either of these techniques will reduce the number of air bubbles around the hand. It seems that has more to do with a swimmer’s proprioceptive feel for the water than the speed of the hand at entry. I have watched countless elite swimmers aggressively throw their hands into the water with tremendous speed and force, yet somehow they manage to avoid getting a lot of air trapped behind their hands. I have also seen many poor swimmers enter their hands delicately in the water and create a virtual stream of air bubbles following their hand on the pulling motion. Second, slowing the hand at entry will slow the stroke rate, a key component to fast swimming freestyle and backstroke.

Third, and what is most important, is that by slowing the hand at entry, swimmers are losing out on a great opportunity to increase their speed. In freestyle and backstroke, there are two important coupling motions that augment the propulsive forces from our hands and feet (pull and kick); the arm recovery and the body rotation. Of the two, because the mass of the body is significantly greater than the arm, the body rotation is more important, but the two motions are linked to one another. Arm recovery couples with the underwater pull only when using shoulder-driven or hybrid freestyle. Coupling motions only work when acting during the propulsion or while the propulsion is still in effect (shortly after the propulsion takes place). The degree to which the coupling motions work depends on their kinetic energy; the speed of the body rotation (angular velocity) and the speed and length of the recovering arm (angular velocity and radius). In other words, the faster the body rotates and the faster and longer the arm recovers, the more powerful the underwater pull becomes.

As with so many things in life, the same holds true for coupling motions. Timing is everything. To maximize the coupling effect, one needs to see the greatest kinetic energy occur in the coupling motion precisely during the strongest force in the propulsion. For backstroke and shoulder driven freestyle, that occurs in the last 25% of the arm recovery, or in other words, right before the hand enters the water. To achieve that, a swimmer should accelerate the hand and arm as they approach the water, not slow them down.

Further, the speed of the hand at entry is also linked to the body rotation speed during this critical time. If one slows the hand down at entry, then the body rotation also slows. If one accelerates the hand at entry, the body snaps quickly to the other side. The speed of the recovering arm during that final 25% of the recovering motion therefore controls two key components to gaining speed, arm recovery and body rotation.

I was struck at the Olympic Trials watching Ryan Murphy and Jacob Pebley throw their hands backward with great force during the last quarter of the recovery in their 1-2 finish in the 200 backstroke. Kudos to Dave Durden for teaching them that great technique….or to each of them for figuring it out. Either way, it worked out well for them.

One of my favorite drills we teach at The Race Club using this aggressive hand entry/body rotation technique is the six-kick, one-stroke drill with fins on. Regardless of whether one uses a low octane or high octane recovery (bent or straight arm), one can feel the increase in power that is generated by the fast final entry of the hand and arm, creating a quick rotation of the body.

My advice is to forget about the air bubbles. Avoid the ‘modern toilet seat’ syndrome. Focus on coupling with your arm, hand and body by accelerating the recovering hand to entry and see what happens.

Yours in swimming,

Gary Sr.

Watch Swimisode: Freestyle Swim Drills: 6 Kicks 1 Stroke

Watch Swimisode: Fast Backstroke Swim Technique

Trust the Data of Velocity Meter to See How You Can Swim Faster


While the velocity meter is not new technology, at The Race Club, we have spent much of the past year understanding how to better use it in order to understand how you can swim faster. We spend an average of ten hours performing and analyzing each test. We have learned a lot.

First, technique in the sport of swimming is extremely important; more than we had imagined. With water being some 800 times denser than air, the laws of motion that affect our speed in water come into play at much slower speeds than with sports in air. Significant deceleration can occur very quickly, within hundredths of seconds, with very small adverse changes in our body’s position or shape. The result of high deceleration is slower speed and a greater fluctuation of speed, an inefficient way of swimming. Flow dynamics are also very important and affect our propulsion.

Second, we have learned that by measuring acceleration and deceleration, in addition to velocity, we can more precisely identify poor technique. Peak deceleration, for example, measures the mistake(s) in real time, while trough velocity occurs later as a result of the deceleration. Even though the loss of velocity may occur just fractions of a second after the peak deceleration occurs, for example, the poor technique that resulted in that change may already be gone. By identifying the time where maximum deceleration takes place, we can then more easily find the bad technique that caused it. When looking at moments of peak acceleration, we can also better identify the propulsive forces that resulted at that moment in the higher acceleration and resultant increase in velocity.

Another parameter that we have learned to use is the difference between peak and trough velocities (∆PT). To our knowledge, this data had never been analyzed in swimmers before. The level of peak velocity is a fairly close indicator of the amount of propulsion a swimmer can create on a given cycle. Trough velocities correlate more closely with the amount of frontal drag occurring between propulsive efforts for a given stroke rate or cycle time. The ∆PT is a better measure of efficiency, as the greater the change in velocity that occurs with the swimmer, the more energy required for the swimmer to average a certain speed (law of inertia).

In freestyle and backstroke, we can identify peak and trough velocities for right arm pulls and left arm pulls. In breaststroke, we find peak and trough velocities for the pull and the kick. In butterfly, we find peak and trough velocities for each of the two down kicks, one of which occurs during the underwater pull and the other during the hand entry. After just a few seconds of swimming, we can measure several peaks and troughs for each stroke. From that data, we derive ∆PT measurements for each stroke.

The analysis involves not only measuring the magnitudes of peaks and troughs, but also comparing symmetry (right arm vs left arm) and consistency (does the peak or trough vary much from stroke to stroke or over time). One of the challenges of this analysis is having a better understanding of what is normal or expected for a given age or ability of a swimmer.

For example, in the ∆PT velocity measurement for freestyle, the majority of better distance swimmers seem to keep under .5 m/sec. With elite swimmers using sprint technique, however, we find the ∆PT goes higher (.75 m/sec or higher) from the increase in propulsion and in frontal drag caused by the deeper, stronger pulling motion. In backstroke, the ∆PT’s are lower, likely due to the changes in flow dynamics of the kick on the back compared to the stomach. We have found in backstroke a ∆PT less than .35 m/sec appears to be desirable. For the same reason, the ∆PT is less in dolphin kick under water on the back than it is on the stomach. In flutter kick, a ∆PT of less than .25 m/sec is desirable.

The higher ∆PT measurements are usually accompanied by higher amounts of deceleration and/or acceleration. While we understand the importance of having a lower ∆PT, particularly on events over 50 meters, we also have found that the highest peak deceleration points are the most important single parameter to help us find poor technique. In nearly every case, we feel confident in being able to identify the cause of the deceleration. Often, there is more than one cause.

When going over our VM data with our Race Club members, it is one thing to show a swimmer video of his dropped elbow, elevated head position, overly bent knee on a kick or a hanging foot in breaststroke or fly, and explain that you think it is bad technique. It is quite another to show a swimmer that as a result of that mistake, the acceleration went from 10 m/sec² (increasing speed) to a deceleration of -10m/sec² (losing speed) in less than .06 seconds. That is not an unusual scenario.

If nothing else, each swimmer doing the VM study has a new respect for the extreme sensitivity of swimming technique. I call swimming a sport of millimeters, tenths of seconds and degrees. Drop the elbow a few millimeters, for example, and the frontal drag goes way up. If a swimmer is a tenth of second late in initiating the push back from the breaststroke kick or in performing the second hard down kick in fly, the swimmer misses the coupling effect of the body motions and loses out on the additional propulsion. For every degree of external rotation of the hip, there may be 5-10 percent more propulsion from the breaststroke kick with the same amount of effort. In swimming, little things matter.

There is no mercy in the water; very little margin of error. In my experience, the Velocity Meter test provides the most important information we have available to help you swim faster. I hope that you will come to Islamorada or to Coronado and allow us to test you.

Yours in swimming,

Gary Sr.