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  • Gary

    November 18, 2021 at 2:48 PM

    Hi Sandra,

    We find that it is not generally recognized nor understood how important the body rotation is in generating propulsion (power). The body rotation should be separated into two different components, shoulder and hip, as the two occur at different times (usually about . 2 seconds apart) and in different amounts. In fact, we classify freestyle technique according to where more effort is being placed, shoulder or hip.

    45 degrees is a typical maximal angle of upper arm and water surface for many swimmers….just not the elite ones. We find that most of them rotate more, some close to 90 degrees. By doing so, they will generate more kinetic energy from the shoulder rotation than a swimmer who rotates to only 45 degrees.

    Rotating that far requires more work and fitness, so must be practiced constantly. The speed of the hand entry is also tied to the speed (angular velocity) of the shoulder rotation…so that must also be emphasized.